I am glad when fate attaches me to the problems of agribusiness, jast not being an agronomist. This is exactly what happened when TOV Svitanok Old Lighthouses turned to us with a request to select seeds of weed such as cylindrical egilops from wheat seeds.

I confess ignorance, but I spoke the name not at the first time. The fact is that

TOV “Svitanok Old Lighthouses” seed farming and because of this difficult-to-separate weed, the farm was forced to abandon seed production and sell seed material as marketable grain.

I had to familiarize myself with the problem. Egilops is a cylindrical widespread weed and creates problems in the cultivation of grain spikes in Eastern Europe, in Caucasus, in the East Mediterranean, in Asia Minor, in Iran, in North America and other countries.

This wide distribution is due to the following:

It is propagated by seeds, but seeds in shape and size are little different from seeds of cereal spike crops, which creates a difficulty in cleaning seeds of cultivated plants.
A single plant of cylindrical egilops can produce up to 3,000 seeds.
The viability of seeds when they are in the soil for at least four years.
Egilops cylindrical and winter wheat have the same life cycles.
The weed is winter-resistant, drought-resistant. Soil salinity does not affect its development. Absolutely unpretentious to soil composition – grows on poor and sandy soils and rocky rocks, on roadsides and elevations up to 2000 m above sea level [1] Cylindrical egilops is actively growing in arid zones.
Its peculiarity is that this weed, like a plant, is practically no different from a plant of winter wheat.

The visual difference is only the presence of hairs on the edge of the leaf plate (Fig. 1)

Figure 1 Visual difference between Egilops cylindrical and winter wheat – hairs along the edge of the leaf plate.

The persistence of this weed is evidenced by the fact that it was brought to the United States in 1800 and still “nightmares” farmers. Cylindrical egilops leads to a decrease in winter wheat yields to 30% and higher (USA states of Idaho, Nevada) [1], in addition, when harvesting wheat, spiny weed spikelets slaughter the working organs of the combine. The lack of purification of grain from this weed reduces the price of wheat. All this confirms the importance of cleaning grain from cylindrical egilops and, especially, the importance of cleaning seeds.

For me, as an ardent supporter of the need to restore the natural fertility of the soil, it is especially upsetting that deep plowing is offered as a fight against this weed, since cylindrical egilops seeds do not germinate from a depth of more than 10-12 cm.

The next unpleasant point is that the recommendations for combating egilops continue to use glyphosate, which is now banned for use in many countries. When we receive the raw material for cleaning, the first thing we do is determine the hallmarks of weed particles from non-injured healthy grains. In the case of egilops, it turned out that the seeds of this weed are slightly lighter than the seeds of wheat of the same size. This predetermined the technology for removing cylindrical egilops seeds – strict thickness calibration of seeds on Fadeev sieve and subsequent fractional density separation on pneumovibrostol further PVA.

It is advisable to use a Compact type small-sized cleaning and calibrating machine for sizing in order to remove egilops from winter wheat composition.

This is exactly what was done (Fig.2)

Figure 2. The results of determining the necessary solutions for cleaning wheat grains from Egilops.

Large plant grain came off the sieve 3.5 mm, and the mixture of wheat grain and egilops was divided into three fractions:

– Passage through the grid 2.7 mm

– Passage through the grid 2.9 mm

– Release from sieve 2.9 mm

Our competitive advantage is that we can make a sieve of any size with a pitch of 0.1 mm. After sizing, each fraction is separately subjected to density separation on the PVA to remove the lighter, but the same size as wheat grains, Egilops seeds Fig. 3.

Rice. 3 Fractional separation of wheat grain mixture from Egilops

As a result of this separation, three fractions come off the deck of pneumovibrostol

– Pure wheat (≈85% of the starting material);

– Egilops seeds (≈5%);

– small amount of undivided mixture of grain and egilops (≈10%) (Fig. 3)

After accumulation, this mixture is re-routed to the PVA to remove egilops seeds from it.

Full-size line for such cleaning is given in Fig. 4

Fig.4 Complex for cleaning cereal spikelet crops from Egilops.

Thus, the proposed technology for cleaning commercial wheat (and even more so seeds) from egilops allows you to solve the problem and remove this weed from the fields of Ukraine. materials

[1] Cylindrical egilops: biological features and control methods, agronomist No. 4 November 2019.

Director of the Fadeev Agro Plant

PHD IN TECHNOLOGICAL SCIENCES. Associate Professor Fadeev L.V.

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